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[IOS] 项目管理最佳实践,企业如何进行有效的项目管理

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发表于 2020-1-8 16:26:45 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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企业在划分项目时,可按照项目的复杂程度、管理范围等将项目分为三个级别,分别是企业级、部门级小组级(与目标划分原则相同),然后将每一级的目标与项目对应起来。

我们知道,企业制定的目标(OKR),一个目标(O)会有多个关键结果(KR),关键结果是衡量目标完成与否的标准,因此,每个项目的目标对应的应该是目标中的关键结果,当然,目标及关键结果的复杂程度不同,所以一个关键结果可能会对应多个项目。

清楚项目划分原则后,下一步就要明确到底哪些工作可以作为单独的项目进行管理或者说哪一类工作可以划分到同一个项目中进行管理。先看一下项目的定义:项目,是为完成某一独特的产品或服务所做出的临时性努力。(临时性是指计划有确定的开始日期和结束日期;独特意味着项目的最终结果不重复。)

项目的定义中给了区别项目的两个关键点:确定的时间唯一的结果,满足这两点的工作我们都可以将他们作为一个项目进行管理。据此,我们总结出四类可以项目的形式进行管理的工作:  

  • 跨单位、跨部门的工作项目化;(如建筑工程项目、机械制造项目等需要跨单位或部门合作完成的工作)
  • 由单一部门负责,部门经理组织的复杂活动项目化;(如产品研发部门的研发项目管理)
  • 涉及到多人合作,可分解任务的工作项目化;(如运营的一场线上活动需要研发、设计、运营等部门的同事一起完成)
  • 有确定完成期限的、确定预算的活动项目化;(如人事行政部门组织的一次团建或一场年会)



创建一个项目可分为四步:
1.清晰定位项目目标(O);
与企业一样,一个项目在成立或创建之初就要有清晰明确的目标
2.明确项目生产的产品、服务或提供给客户的可交付成果(KR);
项目目标确定后,就要分析实现这个目标要做的工作或者是衡量目标完成的标准
3.确保覆盖100%的工作;
项目范围要确保能覆盖到完成这个项目所需做的所有工作
4.进一步细化1和2的每一项,使其形成顺序的逻辑子组,直到工作要素的复杂性和成本花费成为可计划和可控制的管理单元。

需要注意的是:每个项目都要有明确的目标及完成时间,相同或不同部门的工作只要有明确的目标和确定的完成时间,都可以作为一个项目进行管理。

工作分解
划分项目只是确定每个部门或团队的工作范围,但是部门或团队每个成员的工作如何安排、怎样才能确保所有工作都能责任到人是部门或团队负责人需要重点考虑的问题。
对项目进行拆解分配的时候会用到项目管理常用的任务分解方法-工作分解结构(WBS)。工作分解结构就是指以可交付成果为导向对项目要素进行的分组,它归纳和定义了项目的整个工作范围,每下降一层代表对项目工作的更详细定义。


在使用WBS进行工作分解时需要遵循以下原则:

1.遵循MECE原则
即在工作分解时,做到不遗漏、不重复,分解后的工作相互独立,且粒度足够细,不能再进一步分解;

2.遵循SMART原则
即工作的分解要具体(Specific)、可量化(Measurable)、可实现(Attainable)、相关性(Relevant)、时限性(Time-bound),每项工作都必须要有部门和人负责,必须要有主要负责人,另外,工作分配要具体到个人而不是分配给小组。

3.可视化原则
可以分层看到每一项细化的工作,方便项目中每个成员清楚自己的工作范围与目标;

4.任务的粒度要足够细,能方便的应用工期、质量、成本等手段;

5.分解层次不宜过多,以四至六层为宜,最低层次的工作单元成本不宜过高,工期不宜过长;

在这里给大家一点小建议:在实际的工作分解中,如果没有理清工作顺序、思路,可以把原来的一个活进行分解,越分解工作内容越清楚,当把工作分解到一定大小时,就能将工作落实到负责这工作的人身上,而通过拆分不同层面、不同颗粒度,就可以更好的把工作关联起来。

总结一下,无论是将项目与目标对应划分三个级别,还是对单个项目的工作分解,最终都是要将工作细化明确责任,从而达到提高整体工作效率,节约企业成本的目的,这也是企业要进行项目化管理的原因。CORNERSTONE 提供了包括任务/需求/测试管理、迭代规划、缺陷追踪、报表统计、团队协作、WIKI、共享文件和日历等功能模块,20人以下团队可免费使用,点击即可免费注册CORNERSTONE



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