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[IOS] 从老板到项目成员,如何从燃尽图中洞悉团队工作?

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发表于 2019-11-18 17:50:18 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

很多时候,我们感觉什么都没干一天就过去了,但对领导者来说,事情最好已经提前做完了,而且是越快越好。聪明的管理者知道,“时间”是需要花大功夫去把控的限制因素,只有掌握了更多关于时间和工作的数据,我们才能更好地执行计划,在预算范围内按时完成项目。

燃尽图就是用来反映此类项目数据的工具,常用于敏捷软件开发中,如Scrum。它可以呈现剩余工作量和可用剩余时间,并通过可视化的图示表述繁复文字无法表述的意思。

一、燃尽图是什么?

燃尽图可以呈现团队处理用户故事进度,是一种对工作完成情况可视化展示的工具,燃尽图可显示每次迭代工作总量中仍需完成的工作余量。

燃尽图的横轴显示工作天数,纵轴显示剩余工作,反映了项目启动以来的进度情况,它让每个团队成员都能够看到当前的进度,团队需定期更新燃尽图以保持其准确性。

目前存在两种形式的燃尽图,Sprint燃尽图用于显示迭代中的剩余工作量,而产品燃尽图则用于说明整个项目的剩余工作量。

二、如何解读燃尽图

燃尽图有下面几个要点,它有一个X轴,代表项目或迭代的时间;有一个Y轴,代表需要在项目中完成的工作,用户故事剩余的工作量也由该轴表示。

图为CORNERSTONE燃尽图

项目起点位于图表左侧最高点,发生在项目或迭代的第0天。项目完结点位于最右侧,标志着项目或迭代的最后一天。

计划曲线

燃尽图中的计划曲线是一条连接起点和终点的直线。因为代表了需要完成的所有预估任务的总和,计划曲线的终点应穿过X轴,表示已经不存在任何剩余的工作。但鉴于它以估算值为基础,因此并不总是准确的。

实际曲线

燃尽图中还存在一条实际曲线,显示项目或迭代中实际剩余的工作量。在起点,计划剩余工作量和实际剩余工作量是相同的,但随着项目或迭代的进行,实际剩余工作曲线将在计划工作线的上下方波动。实际的剩余工作线每天都会添加一个新的点,直至项目或迭代完成,以确保尽可能准确。

如果实际工作线高于计划曲线,则意味着剩下的工作量比预期多,换句话说,意味着项目进度落后于计划。但如果实际曲线低于计划曲线,则意味着剩余工作量少于预计,项目进度快于既定计划。

三、燃尽图有什么好处?

燃尽图最显著的好处是,能提供关于项目进度和更新状态的最新报告,并对这些重要数据进行直观展示,可以确保每个人都统一进度。

此外,将燃尽图展示到所有人面前,能够让团队所有成员都积极参与项目,并激励成员提前处理可能出现的问题。因此图表越大越显眼就越好。燃尽图应该成为办公室的视觉焦点,进而引发对项目和进度的相关讨论。


               

简洁明了的燃尽图十分有用,因为它是查看项目历史速度(Velocity)的最佳工具。速度(Velocity)是一个敏捷术语,表示迭代期间完成的用户故事相关的预估工作量总和。

CORNERSTONE燃尽图展示了项目经理计划的所有事情,提供预期与实际状态的评估,可帮助项目经理随时进行项目偏差分析,及时调整项目方向,规避风险。

四、燃尽图有何局限?

燃尽表无法呈现所有信息

例如,它仅显示已经完成的用户故事工作量,无法预知任何变化,例如在工作范围内估算待办列表(backlog)的所有points。因此,我们很难判断燃尽图中的变化是由于已经完成的backlog,还是由于故事点的增加或减少引起的。在燃尽图中增加一个专门显示backlog总量的图表可以解决这个问题。

但是,燃尽图(向下或向上线条显示)都无法显示哪些产品backlog已经完成。燃尽图能显示项目的进度,但无法显示团队是否在做正确的事,也无法判断团队是否在交付正确产品backlog。

燃尽图需依赖精准的预估

燃尽图的另外一个问题是理想剩余工作线。实际工作线是高于还是低于理想工作线需要取决于对任务原始时间估计的准确性。因此,如果团队过高估计时间要求,则项目实际进度可能会看似正常或略超前。但如果低估了时间要求,则看起来会落后于计划。

将效率因素纳入燃尽图可以解决这个问题。因此,在项目的第一次迭代之后,重新计算效率因素能够获得更高的准确性。

五、燃尽图的历史回顾

燃烧图表是从Scrum社区开发出来的,并且在2000年左右首次用于管理软件项目和其他相关工作。Ken Schwaber首次对燃尽图进行了描述,因此也被认为是燃尽图的发明者。当时正在Fidelity Investments工作的Ken Schwaber创建了燃尽图,来为Scrum团队提供一个可以帮助他们绘制项目进度图的简单工具。

到2002年,燃尽图在Scrum社区中越来越受欢迎。从那以后,燃尽图开始运用于scrum之外的其他领域,成为了管理者控制项目进度的有用工具。


CORNERSTONE提供专业的敏捷开发模板工具,包括任务/需求/测试管理、迭代规划、缺陷追踪、报表统计、团队协作、WIKI、共享文件和日历等功能模块,完美匹配整个敏捷开发流程,20人以下团队可免费使用,点击即可免费注册CORNERSTONE


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